Bienvenido! - Willkommen! - Welcome!

Bitácora Técnica de Tux&Cía., Santa Cruz de la Sierra, BO
Bitácora Central: Tux&Cía.
Bitácora de Información Avanzada: Tux&Cía.-Información
May the source be with you!

Thursday, July 31, 2008

Las mujeres de Linux


Por: Axel Marazzi

Machtelt Garrels Pia Waugh Erinn Clark
Hanna Wallach Celeste Lyn Paul Eva Brucherseifer

Si es raro ver a un hombre utilizando Linux, ver a una mujer hacerlo
es algo prácticamente imposible. No es una cuestión de discriminación,
pero parece que el sistema operativo no tiene muchas simpatizantes.

Pero para mostrarnos que SI hubo y hay muchas féminas que
contribuyeron increíblemente con el OS y con la comunidad que este
posee, la gente de LinuxHaxor decidió hacer una lista detallando qué funciones cumplen (o cumplieron) las mujeres más importantes que tiene Linux:

  • Machtelt Garrels: Es una veterana de Linux y actualmente es una consultora y entrenadora freelance. También es miembro de Linux Documentation Project, lugar que encontró para que sus escritos sean leídos en todo el mundo. Fue invitada el año pasado para que ingrese al BSD Certification Group Advisory Borrad
    y compartiera todo su conocimiento sobre la organización de
    certificaciones. El año pasado está colaborando con el grupo sin fines
    de lucro OpenDoc Society que promueve el uso de estándares libres.

  • Pia Waugh: Esta australiana está completamente dedicada al software libre. Es actualmente la presidenta de la organización Software Freedom Day y vicepresidente de Linux Australia.

  • Erinn Clark: Una desarrolladora de Debian que también fue co-fundadora y lidera actualmente el proyecto Debian Women.

  • Hanna Wallach: Desarrolladora de GNOME y Debian quien ayudó a la fundación GNOME a desarrollar el Women’s Summer Outreach Program.

  • Amaya Rodrigo Sastre: Desarrolladora de Debian y co-fundadora de Debian Women. Este es su blog.

  • Celeste Lyn Paul: Diseñadora de interacción, investigadora y contribuidora del desarrollo de open source. También lidera el KDE Usability Project, mentor de OpenUsability Season of Usability y está involucrada en el desarrollo de Kubuntu.

  • Eva Brucherseifer: Ingeniera eléctrica de Alemania que está detrás de los proyectos KDE-Women, KDE-Edu y KDE-Solaris.

  • Anne Nicolas: Directora de ingeniería de Mandriva.

  • Kristen Carlson Accardi: Desarrolladora de
    Kernel quien trabaja para Intel. Es desarrolladora de drivers desde el
    año ’90 y comenzó a concentrarse en el desarrollo de drivers para Linux
    desde el año 2005.

  • Valerie Henson: Val (así le dice todo el mundo) es una hacker del Kernel de Linux especializada en el desarrollo de filesystems. En agosto comenzará a trabajar para Red Hat. Este es su website.

  • Stormy Peters: Directora ejecutiva de la fundación GNOME. Está involucrada en la comunidad de GNOME desde el año ’99.

Gracias, Axel!!!
Una argentina para leer!

Tuesday, July 29, 2008

Puppy Linux -Security

Securing Puppy in 5 easy steps.

After you boot up do the following:
--Open console type 'passwd root'. enter your new password twice.

--Run 'lock' on desktop and enter password from step 1

*you may want to select 'blank' from the config to save on processor usage

--Edit /etc/inittab to look like this:

tty1::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty1
tty2::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty2

*this keeps someone from killing lock with ctrl+alt+backspace and logging back in automatically and also gives the option on bootup to
enter 'root' and 'password'.

--Run the firewall wizard at Menu->Setup->Linux-Firewall Wizard. automagic works fine if you don't have to set up any local

--Shutdown and select 'heavy encryption'
Puppy is secure.

I never use anything more than the firewall in Puppy and a hardware firewall in the router
I believe the hardware firewall restricts use of VOIP, I could set it up differently but . . . [shrug]
A lot of people will appreciate what John Doe is suggesting.
For me encryption will slow Puppy, Login passwords as In the new Grafpup, having to mount CD's are hindrances - for some they are necessities. Unlike most Linux, Puppy is designed NOT for network use but for single desktop user.
However sometimes people share access, so these precautions become useful, so too with mobile use. We also do have networked users.
Puppy is flexible enough to be small, secure, network and thin client compatible and so on. In other words Puppy is small and simple enough to evolve in many directions . . . and he does . . .
Just remember a recent report (sorry no link) has found Windows Vista is no more secure than XP. Pah - wow? The worry more like. How slow is your Windows machine after adding essential security software?
No trojans, virii and other malware for Puppy. It kinda freaks out the Windows users who are used to living with essential computer slowing protection.
It's probably worth mentioning that Puppy isn't set up as a multiuser system.
You can add a new user login to Puppy by opening an rxvt console and entering the commands:
mkdir /home
[note: the above assumes you don't have that directory already]
adduser [new_user_name]
However, adduser fails to make a skeleton copy of all the configuration files, that new user would need, into their home directory.
Hence, if you tried booting up as that new user, you would find that all the required symlinks etc are not made for X windows desktop to operate. The system will boot into X as that user, but what you get is pretty much unusable and locked up - you don't even get a Menu bar so it's tricky to shut the system down again... If you do try such a thing, you can however always get out of X by pressing the key combination: Ctrl-[Backspace key]. That takes you to a bash commandline. Then you can login as root user and start X windows up again by entering the command: xwin
I also noticed that the command "deluser [username]" fails to remove any newly added user.

Windows XP Live Edition 2

Run Windows XP Directly From Your CD Rom, no installation Needed!

Special version Windows XP: Live Edition 2 (WinPE) capable to be loaded from this compact disc in operative memory of your personal computer.

The disk allows to restore operational systems when those refuse to be loaded. Support of all operational systems from Win9X/NT/2000/XP and, accordingly, file systems FAT/FAT32/NTFS/CDFS. This version is intended for those whose computer can t boot and got the important data in the harddisk. Boot from this CD and retrieve all your data.

How to use:
  • Just Burn this ISO on cd rom
  • Insert CD in your cd drive
  • Restart pc with using cd rom as 1st boot device and you have done
  • Windows XP will directly run from CD



Bill's products for low ressources

OS of Micro$oft
Installing WinFLP

After setup

Windows Update prompted to download KB898461.

After installation, these patches were required:



Windows Installer 3.1



















After installation this was required:

KB892130 Windows Genuine Advantage tool

Interestingly, the next web scan failed on Invalid Product Key!

Then Automatic Updates shows these required patches:










Then, I installed CA ETrust Anti-virus

Used disk space: 846 MB

Master file table: 7MB (my production XP machine has 140MB)

Installing software on Win FLP

The best OS on ASUS EEEPC:
(Microsoft's official version of an nLited XP. They've done the work for you)
I have always used fundamentals on my main boxes and gaming rigs, nice and lean! But have reverted to xp performance nlite on my eee dual boot as i had nothing but trouble with fundamentals and the eee.
It does not have HSDPA support, meaning that a 3G USB modem could not
work at all. That made me install Windows XP SP3 instead and it worked

How to Revive an old PC with Linux

You can put a 21st Century operating system on a 20th Century computer.
  1. Consider what you want, a desktop computer, a server, or a router/firewall.
  2. Clean it with compressed air.
  3. Test your PC will turn on safely.
  4. Determine what your PC will boot from (in the BIOS or manual), old ones might not boot from USB, really old ones might not even boot from CD.
  5. If it won't boot from CD, download floppy boot images of Damn Small Linux and Puppy Linux (WakePup for Puppy Linux 1 and 2 series) and once extracted onto a floppy disk, insert them into your old PC.
  6. If you're on dial-up and don't want to download Damn Small Linux (50Mb) or Puppy Linux (100Mb), then buy a CD online.
  7. Download SliTaz, Damn Small Linux or Puppy Linux CDs (on a new PC if you have one) and burn them as images (with Infrarecorder or Nero).
  8. Turn your old PC on if you haven't already and insert the CDs as soon as you can, if successful, you'll be greeted by a DSL or Puppy Linux boot screen for a few seconds (press a key quickly to interrupt the countdown if you like)
  9. Unless you have valuable data on the old PC, consider creating a swap partition (with gParted or Ultimate Boot CD) if you have too little ram (less than 64Mb) to run the distros "live".
  10. Read and consider carefully using cheat codes at boot (also called boot parameters) to run more from CD and use less RAM particularly with Puppy
  11. Choose Xvesa rather than framebuffer if you have display problems
  12. Turn off ACPI or APM if you have problems.
  13. If you like Puppy Linux but 3 series is too slow, consider 2 series (Phoenix or 214R), or even 1 series (MeanPup or 109CE).
  14. If you like Damn Small Linux, also consider Damn Small Linux-Not (with Abiword and Gnumeric) or Feather Linux (also derived from Knoppix).
  15. If you have a serial mouse, test whether it is detected and works. If it doesn't, then additional configuration can be made with boot parameters/cheat codes.
  16. For dial-up modems, consider a hardware dial-up modem for maximum compatibility.
  17. Some gains in performance may be made, once installed to hard disk rather than running live.
  18. Also consider a "frugal installation" for performance gains.
  19. If you spread the word, tell your friends and share Damn Small Linux and Puppy Linux CDs, you can build your own local support group to help revive old PCs.


  • If you're adding applications, choose lightweight ones like SIAG Office rather than
  • Choose lightweight window managers like JWM, IceWM or Fluxbox rather than GNOME or KDE.
  • Choose lightweight browsers like Opera or Dillo rather than Konqueror or Flock.
  • If you want something different and unusual with eye-candy, consider Enlightenment window manager which comes with eLive.


What is Absolute?
Absolute is a customized Slackware distribution:

  • Assembled to make installation and maintenance of Slackware easier.

  • It is an easy install (no package selection)

  • kernel build that is set to accept CPUs down to a Pentium Classic and tuned for desktop performance

    You CAN run Absolute on a Pentium 200 with 64 MB of RAM (although it would be really slow) -- but with a Pentium II or above and at least 128 MB of RAM you can expect zippy and stable performance

  • Accepts packages made for same Slackware Version, so you can use Slackware software repositories.
Absolute is a desktop-oriented Slackware -- lightweight but stable. Secure, in that only root user can install software and configure the system. Basically an IT or system-builder's friend in that it can run nicely on old hardware. Very easy for users to get things done because of the software selection and utilities and documentation -- yet difficult for them to mess things up.

This leads to 2 things:
  • Home "power" users may take to running as root all the time -- not smart but, hey, I'm also often guilty as charged as I play with development

  • IT guys who set up machines at work and schools don't have to worry about folks messing things up. They set up a machne, hook it up to the internet and/or network, throw on OpenOffice from the Absolute CD2, plug in the printer and walk away saying "there you go -- call me when the hardware dies."

To me it is Linux at its best -- completely configurable for those with the knowledge and inclination, but useable and productive "out of the box" for anyone, thanks to small, single-purpose applications and utilities to help get things done.
The system is built to do what I want it to do. Nothing less but nothing more. I want the user interface to have robust functionality, but also STAY OUT OF MY WAY.
  • ease of installation (to save my time),

  • lightweight enough to put on even very old machines,

  • included software is set up for desktop use, not as a server,

  • and stable enough and easy enough to use so that I did not get support calls all the time.

LinuxMint4.0 on OLD computers

Please do not try Vector. It is also having lot of problems. I have a pIII/256MB ram/80gb Thinkpad s30 and for learning, I tried to install all big ones. PClos2007, Mandriva 2008, Mint 40, Mepis 6.5 Sabayon latest, and PCBSD and desktop bsd. The bsd are in queue so will let you
know later. But except mint all the the big distros installed and worked. Sabayon worked the best with very smooth install. It looks beautiful too. Mandriva 2008 and pclos too work well. I tried a less known distro called Wolvix and it is just fantastic. It runs like supercomputer on a p3. Of course it is not a surprise at it is from slackware stable where as the big ones I mentioned are someway connected to some other parentage.
If you have a swap partition on the Harddisk Mint Linux will use it. I think if 256mb ram is not sufficient it is best to have a swap of 1 gb and then try the mint cd.
32MB of ram for OS!!!!!

Absolute Linux Based on Slackware:

antiX A fast, lightweight and easy to install linux live CD distribution based on MEPIS for Intel-AMD x86 compatible systems. antiX offers users the "Magic of Mepis" in an environment suitable for old computers. a installable live-cd based on Mepis:

Damn Small Linux, will install as a Debian system:
Debian The classic is to install the basic Debian over the net and then install Fluxbox, Rox-Filer, Opera, etc.:
Puppy Linux A truly great little distribution, very configurable without being over complex, the downside is that it does 'run as root' when installed. But you can set up the user account spot, look at the forum, it has many posts about how to do that.

SaxonOS Its hardware requirements are not as high as PCLinuxOS

Slitaz The smallest useful distro (<30mb) href="" target="_blank">

TinyMe is a remaster of PCLinuxOS stripped down and rebuilded to a smaller size for older computers (it has a kernel for 'legacy' machines).

Vector Linux (Use the standard edition):

ZenWalk has both an install and livecd versions, aimed at machines with low specs:

Live CD: serial Mice prob

Alt + F2
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

sudo nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf (modo consola)
The serial mouse works fine in Debian Etch xorg!
old serial mouse with Microsoft protocol in COM1
Here is the possible configuration:

Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier  "Mouse1"
    Driver      "mouse"
    Option "Protocol"    "Microsoft"
    Option "Device"      "/dev/ttyS0"
    Option "Emulate3Buttons"
    Option "Emulate3Timeout"    "50"
Reemplazar en Section "InputDevice"
Option "Device" "/dev/input/mice" por Option "Device" "/dev/ttyS0" (s mayúscula y número 0)
Option "Protocol" "ImPS/2" por
Option "Protocol" "Microsoft"Ctrl + O --- Enter --Ctrl + X
reiniciar X Window:
Ctrl + Alt + Backspace
I've got an SK-6000 Keyboard on one of my desktops. It's a PS2 Keyboard with a separate serial (RS-232) connector for a built-in touchpad. I use both under Windows98SE, together with a PS2 or USB mouse. Most Linux LiveCDs don't initialize the serial touchpad. Knoppix is the only one I've tried that does. Some arlier versions of Puppy simply ignored serial pointer devices.
I booted up this system with Puppy 4.0 LiveCD to check something altogether different, and found that my InfraRed USB mouse didn't work.
I then tried a wired mouse, and it didn't work either. I then closed X and attached a PS/2 mouse, but no luck there. Instead the keyboard stopped working. So I rebooted.
On one boot with the keyboard, serial touchpad and the wired USB and PS/2 mice installed. only the keyboard and the serial touchpad worked.
I then opened Setup and changed the mouse selection from serial to USB. The result was that the serial touchpad no longer worked, but neither did the USB or the PS/2 mouse.!
On two boots with all three pointing devices connected, the keyboard didn't work, so I couldn't configure X, and had to reboot...
I tried removing the USB mouse and booting with only the serial and PS/2, then the PS/2 mouse was recognized, and the keyboard worked, but not the serial touchpad.
I then plugged in the USB mouse, selected USB in the mouse Setup, and restarted X. No USB mouse, but the PS/2 one still worked.
Next, I ran Setup again, selected the serial mouse, and restarted X once more. Now there's no mouse of any kind available, although three are plugged in.
I rebooted again with only the serial touchpad and a wired USB mouse installed. The Keyboard worked, the serial mouse was active, the USB wasn't. I reconfigured the mouse setup to "USB", restarted X, and no mouse, serial or USB, was available anymore.. Nor was there any way to shut down using the keyboard. Only reset or lowering down could get me back to a reboot.
Then I repeated the last reboot with Puppy 3.01 standard, and got the same result, serial yes, usb no, change type = 0 mice.

gnome error message "OAFIID..."
Gnome Login Error The panel encountered a problem while loading "OAFIID ..."

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop gdm
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm start
This installs any gnome apps that might have gotten screwed up during the installation of other software.

The panel encountered a problem while loading "OAFIID:GNOME_MixerApplet"
Failed to resolve, or extend '!prefs_key=/apps/panel/profiles/default/applets/mixer/prefs;background=none:;orient=down;size=x-small;locked_down=false

just try to install some packages. (Re)install "gnome-applets" (and its dependencies "gnome-applets-data")
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm stop
sudo aptitude reinstall gnome-applets

aptitude search applet | more
aptitude reinstall [any applet preceded by a v or an i in previous step]
This essentially reinstall all the applets on the system.

Sourceforge 2008

Fuente: Linux, Java y programación
La lista de ganadores es la siguiente:
  • Mejor proyecto:
  • Mejor proyecto para la empresa:
  • Mejor proyecto para educación:
  • Proyecto que probablemente será la próxima adquisición millonaria: phpMyAdmin
  • Mejor proyecto para multimedia: VLC
  • Mejor proyecto para jugones: XBMC
  • Proyecto que probablemente vaya a cambiar el mundo: Linux
  • Mejor nuevo proyecto: Magento
  • Proyecto que probablemente vaya a ser acusado ambiguamente de infringimiento de patentes: WINE
  • Proyecto que probablemente conseguirá que sus usuarios sean demandados: eMule
  • Mejor herramienta o utilidad para administradores: phpMyAdmin
  • Mejor herramienta o utilidad para desarrolladores: Notepad++

Sunday, July 27, 2008

Surge Protection!

En Cambalandia tambien hay usuarios que no lo saben!:

Friday, July 25, 2008 videos speichern

  • Cache des Browsers öffnen. Die Endung ".flv" anhängen und einen passenden Namen vergeben. Irgendwoanders kopieren
  • Andere Lösung:
    Dort den
    Videolink eingeben (nachdem man das Video gesehen hat) und dann kann
    man es irgendwoanders abspeichern.
Free FLV player for windows

More antivirus SW

Panda ActiveScan 2.0 Download
  • Quick, Complete and Custom Scanning of Hard
    Drives, Removable Drives, Memory, Registry,
    Individual Folders and More! Includes Trusting Items and Excluding
    Folders for complete customization of scanning!

  • Detect and Remove Spyware, Adware, Malware,
    Trojans, Dialers, Worms, KeyLoggers, HiJackers and many other
    types of threats.

  • Repair broken Internet Connections, Desktops,
    Registry Editing, Task Manager and more with our unique Repair
    System! Spyware application often disable system
    components to prevent removal - SUPERAntiSpyware
    resets and restores these items in seconds!

  • Real-Time Blocking of threats! Prevent
    potentially harmful software from installing or re-installing!*

  • Schedule either Quick, Complete or Custom
    Scans Daily or Weekly to ensure your computer is free from
    harmful software.*
  • ....

Protéger un ordinateur contre les malwares Internet

Publié par regis59, dernière mise à jour le samedi 22 mars 2008 à 19:10:52 par Nilou17
Afin de lutter contre tous types d'infections, de se protéger efficacement, de désinfecter son PC, il est nécessaire de disposer de certains logiciels et programmes dont je vais essayer de vous expliquer leur utilité.
I - Antivirus/Pare-feu
Qu'est-ce qu'un antivirus ?
Qu'est-ce qu'un pare-feu (firewall) ?
II - Les autres types d'infections
Les anti-spywares
Les anti-trojans
Les anti-rootkits
Desktop Hijack (Détournement de bureau)
Utilitaires de désinfection
Nettoyage des fichiers Internet, Temp, cookies, ...
Nettoyeurs de registre
III - Mettre à jour Windows
IV - Sécuriser encore un peu plus son PC...
Pour sécuriser
Mettre à jour la console Java
Les bons réflexes
V - Pourquoi tant de précautions ?
VI - Tester la sécurité de son PC
A lire de toute urgence !

Desinfección de MS live messenger

Wednesday, July 23, 2008


DoubleClick is often linked with the controversy over spyware because browser HTTP cookies are set to track users as they travel from website to website and record what commercial advertisements they view and select while browsing.

According to a San Francisco IT consulting group, although DoubleClick does offer an opt-out page, this only affects cookies; DoubleClick continues to track users via IP addresses.

Data Collection
DoubleClick targets along various criteria. Targeting can be accomplished using IP addresses, business rules set by the client or by reference to information about users stored within cookies on their machines. Some of the types of information collected are:

In addition, the cookie information may be used to target ads based on the number of times the user has been exposed to any given message. This is known as "frequency capping".

Fixing file association problems in Win XP
Ever had the problem that you couldn't open any files types like .exe, .txt, etc. after your anti-virus program deleted some nasties from your system? You can download a BAT file (zipped) that will restore all of the "default" associations that XP ships with. The BAT file can be downloaded HERE.

You can also fix separate file association problems by downloading the files indicated.

Batch File Association Fix (Restore the default associations for BAT files)
CAB File Association Fix (Restore the default associations for CAB files)
CHM File Association Fix (Restore the default associations for CHM files)
COM File Association Fix (Restore the default associations for COM files)
CPL File Association Fix (Restore the default associations for CPL files)
Directory Extension Fix (Restores defaults to HKCR\Directory)
Drive Association Fix (Restores default settings for hard drives)
EML File Association Fix (Restores defaults for EML files)
EXE File Association Fix (Restore default association for EXE files)
Folder Association Fix (Restore default associations for File Folders)
GIF File Association Fix (Restore default associations for GIF Files)
HLP File Association Fix (Restore default associations for HLP files)
HTA File Association Fix (Restore default associations for HTA Files
HTM/HTML Associations (Restore the default associations for htm/html files)
ICO File Association Fix (Restore the default association for ico files)
INF File Association Fix (Restore the default assocation for INF files)
Internet Explorer Desktop Icon Fix (Restore the default behavior for the Desktop IE icon)
JPE/JPG/JPEG Association Fix (Restore the default associations for jpe/jpg/jpeg files)
LNK (Shortcut) File Association Fix (Restores Default Shortcut Behavior)
MPG/MPEG File Association Fix (Restores default associations for MPG/MPEG files)
MSC File Association Fix (Restore default associations for MSC files)
MSI File Association Fix (Restore default associations for MSI files)
MSP File Association Fix (Restore default associations for MSP files)
REG File Association Fix (Restore default associations for REG files)
SCF File Association Fix (Restore default associations for SCF files)
SCR File Association Fix (Restore default associations for SCR files)
TXT File Association Fix (Restore default associations for TXT files)
TIF/TIFF File Association Fix (Restores default associations for TIF/TIFF files)
URL File Association Fix (Restores default associations for URL - Internet shortcuts)
VBS File Association Fix (Restores default associations for VBS files)
ZIP Folder Association Fix (Restores default associations for ZIP Folders - REG File)

Source: Doug Knox at

WinSockFix will offer a last resort if your Internet connection is corrupted due to removed or invalid registry entries. It can often cure the problem of lost connections after the removal of Adware components or improper uninstall of firewall applications or other tools that modify the XP network and Winsock settings. If you encounter connection problems after removing network related software, Adware or after registry clean-up; and all other ways fail, then this might be your solution.
It can create a registry backup of your current settings, so it is fairly safe to use.
The Winsockfix Utility will:
* Detect your current Operating System
* Release the IP address, taking you "Offline"
* Reset the TCP stack using Netsh.exe (Windows XP only)
* Delete the current Registry TCP and Winsock Values
* Import new "Working" Registry Values
* Backup any Current "Hosts" file
* Replace the "Hosts" file with a default one
* Reboot the Computer

Of course you will have to set all your network parameters again as if you'd just installed XP.

Butter- or HTTP- cookies?

Status codes
200 OK
301 Moved permanently
302 Found
403 Forbidden
404 Not Found

HTTP cookies, or more commonly referred to as Web cookies, tracking cookies or just cookies, are parcels of text sent by a server to a web client (usually a browser) and then sent back unchanged by the client each time it accesses that server. HTTP cookies are used for authenticating, session tracking (state maintenance), and maintaining specific information about users, such as site preferences or the contents of their electronic shopping carts. The term "cookie" is derived from "magic cookie," a well-known concept in UNIX computing which inspired both the idea and the name of HTTP cookies.
Cookies have been of concern for Internet privacy, since they can be used for tracking browsing behavior. As a result, they have been subject to legislation in various countries such as the United States, as well as the European Union. Cookies have also been criticized because the identification of users they provide is not always accurate and because they could potentially be a target of network attackers. Some alternatives to cookies exist, but each has its own uses, advantages, and drawbacks.
Cookies are also subject to a number of misconceptions, mostly based on the erroneous notion that they are computer programs. In fact, cookies are simple pieces of data unable to perform any operation by themselves. In particular, they are neither spyware nor viruses, despite the detection of cookies from certain sites by many anti-spyware products.
Most modern browsers allow users to decide whether to accept cookies, but rejection makes some websites unusable. For example, shopping carts implemented using cookies do not work if cookies are rejected.


A possible interaction between a Web browser and a server holding a Web page, in which the server sends a cookie to the browser and the browser sends it back when requesting another page.
(Double click on image for a bigger view)
A possible interaction between a Web browser and a server holding a Web page, in which the server sends a cookie to the browser and the browser sends it back when requesting another page.

Technically, cookies are arbitrary pieces of data chosen by the Web server and sent to the browser. The browser returns them unchanged to the server, introducing a state (memory of previous events) into otherwise stateless HTTP transactions. Without cookies, each retrieval of a Web page or component of a Web page is an isolated event, mostly unrelated to all other views of the pages of the same site. By returning a cookie to a web server, the browser provides the server a means of connecting the current page view with prior page views. Other than being set by a web server, cookies can also be set by a script in a language such as JavaScript, if supported and enabled by the Web browser.
Cookie specifications suggest that browsers should support a minimal number of cookies or amount of memory for storing them. In particular, an internet browser is expected to be able to store at least 300 cookies of four kilobytes each, and at least 20 cookies per server or domain.
Relevant count of maximum stored cookies per domain for the major browsers are:

  • Firefox 1.5: 50
  • Firefox 2.0: 50
  • Opera 9: 30
  • Internet Explorer 6: 20 (raised to 50 in update on 14 August 2007)
  • Internet Explorer 7: 20 (raised to 50 in update on 14 August 2007)

In practice cookies must be smaller than 4 kilobytes. Internet Explorer imposes a 4KB total for all cookies stored in a given domain.
Cookie names are case insensitive according to section 3.1 of RFC 2965
The cookie setter can specify a deletion date, in which case the cookie will be removed on that date. If the cookie setter does not specify a date, the cookie is removed once the user quits his or her browser. As a result, specifying a date is a way for making a cookie survive across sessions. For this reason, cookies with an expiration date are called persistent. As an example application, a shopping site can use persistent cookies to store the items users have placed in their basket. This way, if users quit their browser without making a purchase and return later, they still find the same items in the basket so they do not have to look for these items again. If these cookies were not given an expiration date, they would expire when the browser is closed, and the information about the basket content would be lost.
Cookies can also be limited in scope to a specific domain, subdomain or path on the web server which created them. However Phorm has attracted considerable attention in the United Kingdom over its plans to intercept cookies at ISP-level and substitute them with a cookie that allows the company to track users' online activities across all websites visited.

A cookie can be stolen by another computer that is allowed reading from the network
A cookie can be stolen by another computer that is allowed reading from the network

Cross-site scripting: a cookie that should be only exchanged between a server and a client is sent to another party.
Cross-site scripting: a cookie that should be only exchanged between a server and a client is sent to another party.

Cookie poisoning: an attacker sends a server an invalid cookie, possibly modifying a valid cookie it previously received from the server.
Cookie poisoning: an attacker sends a server an invalid cookie, possibly modifying a valid cookie it previously received from the server.

In cross-site cooking, the attacker exploits a browser bug to send an invalid cookie to a server.
In cross-site cooking, the attacker exploits a browser bug to send an invalid cookie to a server.

Blocking Unwanted Cookies with IE 7

One of the new features built-in to IE 7 is the ability to accept and/or block any or all cookies if desired.
Recommended Settings
Open Internet Options | Privacy, click on the Advanced button. Place a check in "Override automatic cookie handling".
Set "First Party Cookies" to Block, set "Third Party Cookies" to Block.
Note: you will need to manually Allow certain cookies, you should add: "*" (no quotes) to the "Always Allow" list to avoid any problems with Windows Update or the many other Microsoft sites, including the MSKB which requires Cookies to be accepted. I would recommend adding any sites that you frequent such as Banking, and any sites that require you to log in, etc.
You'll find that after a while this only requires a very short list.

There's no place like

The hosts file is a computer file used to store information on where to find a node on a computer network. This file maps hostnames to IP addresses. The hosts file is used as a supplement to (or instead of) the domain name system on networks of varying sizes. Unlike DNS, the hosts file is under the control of the local computer's administrator.
Blocking unwanted parasites with a host file (thanks to

The Hosts file contains the mappings of IP addresses to host names. This file is loaded into memory (cache) at startup, then Windows checks the Hosts file before it queries any DNS servers**, which enables it to override addresses in the DNS. This prevents access to the listed sites by redirecting any connection attempts back to the local (your) machine. Another feature of the HOSTS file is its ability to block other applications from connecting to the Internet, providing the entry exists.
You can use a HOSTS file to block ads, banners, 3rd party Cookies, 3rd party page counters, web bugs, and even most hijackers. This is accomplished by blocking the connection(s) that supplies these little gems.

Example - the following entry blocks all files supplied by that DoubleClick Server to the web page you are viewing. This also prevents the server from tracking your movements. Why? ... because in certain cases "Ad Servers" like Doubleclick (and many others) will try to open a separate connection on the webpage you are viewing.

For XP SP2 users you should see a Security Center prompt about allowing this connection. [screenshot]
Simply click No and continue. Yes the prompts can be annoying but at least you'll know, however you should not see these prompts if these entries are included in the HOSTS file.
Note: this prompt only occurs if (example) * is included in the "Restricted Zone".

More Examples
AdTech | BridgeTrack | Honesty | Mgnetwork | ValueClick | Google AdSense | Atdmt | Atdmt
Now here is a 3rd party ad server opening a connection to another 3rd party ad server - Ad-Flow
More 3rd parties opening other 3rd parties: Overture | Overture | Directtrack | Directtrack | RealMedia

Note: By placing these type sites in the Restricted Zone this also cures most "Back Button" issues.
Now includes most major parasites, hijackers and unwanted Adware/Spyware programs!
Proudly now the #1 rated HOSTS file on the Internet! - Google | MSN | Yahoo | AltaVista
Now regularly featured on the Kim Komando Radio Show
The MVPS HOSTS file has been selected by Pricelessware as "the best of the best in Freeware" for the 2nd time ...

In many cases using a well designed HOSTS file can speed the loading of web pages by not having to wait for these ads, annoying banners, hit counters, etc. to load. This also helps to protect your Privacy and Security by blocking sites that may track your viewing habits, also known as "click-thru tracking" or Data Miners. Simply using a HOSTS file is not a cure-all against all the dangers on the Internet, but it does provide another very effective "Layer of Protection".

Editors Note: As time has progressed the focus of this project has changed from just blocking ads/banners to protecting the user from the many parasites that now exist on the Internet. It doesn't serve much purpose if you block the ad banner from displaying as most other HOSTS files do, but get hijacked by a parasite from an evil exploit or download contained on the web site. The object is to surf faster while preserving your Safety, Security and Privacy. [more info]

To view the HOSTS file in plain text form. (692 kb) (opens in IE)
Note: The text version also makes a terrific reference for determining possible unwanted sites
Download: [right-click - Select: Save Target As] [Updated July-07-2008]

This download includes a simple batch file (mvps.bat) that will rename the existing HOSTS file to HOSTS.MVP then copy the included updated HOSTS file to the proper location. For more information please see the readme.txt included in the download.

Important! Windows Vista requires special instructions Not here - over there > see here

When you run the (mvps.bat) batch file XP users may see a prompt, simply click Run and continue. Once updated you should see another prompt that the task was completed. Some users may see a pop-up from certain Security programs about changes to the HOSTS file. Allow the change ... however if you see this pop-up at any other time ... investigate.

Download Information: (checksum info is on the HOSTS file not the "")
: b8d7e100b332a721e6ec038d3e350e30 SHA-1: 7a87991a9be57f6ce4389cc30c1af5b4f2bb07d4
(created by File Checksum Integrity Verifier) To view Checksum for this download Not here - over there > [click here]

Manual Method - Unzip in a "temp" folder and place in the appropriate installed location:

  • If you are having trouble downloading or extracting the HOSTS file [click here]
    Note: the below locations are for the typical default paths, edit as needed.
Windows Vista = C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\
Windows 2K = C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\
Win 98/ME = C:\WINDOWS

There is no need to turn on, adjust or change any settings with the exception of the DNS Client service (see below). Windows automatically looks for the existence of a HOSTS file and if found, checks the HOSTS file first for entries to the web page you just requested. The is the location of your computer, so when the entry (example) "" is requested your computer thinks is the location of the file. When this file is not located it skips onto the next file and thus the ad server is blocked from loading the banner, Cookie, or some unscrupulous ActiveX, or javascript file.
In case you're wondering ... this all happens in microseconds, which is much faster than trying to fetch a file from half way around the world. Another great feature of the HOSTS file is that it is a two-way file, meaning if some parasite does get into your system (usually bundled with other products) the culprit can not get out (call home) as long as the necessary entries exist. This is why it's important to keep your HOSTS file up to Date. Subscribe to a secure mailing list

Editors Note: in most cases a large HOSTS file (over 135 kb) tends to slow down the machine. This only occurs in W2000/XP/Vista. Windows 98 and ME are not affected.
To resolve this issue (manually) open the "Services Editor"

  • Start | Run (type) "services.msc" (no quotes)
  • Scroll down to "DNS Client", Right-click and select: Properties
  • Click the drop-down arrow for "Startup type"
  • Select: Manual, or Disabled (recommended) click Apply/Ok and restart. [more info]

When set to Manual (or Disabled) you can see that the above "Service" is not needed (after a little browsing) by opening the Services Editor again, scroll down to DNS Client and check the "Status" column. It should be blank, if it was needed it would show "Started" in that column. There are several Utilities that can reset the DNS Client for you ... [more info]

Editors Note: The above instructions are intended for a single (home-user) PC. If your machine is part of a "Domain", check with your IT Dept. before applying this work-around. This especially applies to Laptop users who travel or bring their machines home. Make sure to reset the Service (if needed) prior to connecting (reboot required) to your work Domain ...

JBF sends along this Tip: IPCOP running a DHCP server needs the local PC DNS Client enabled to function.

Reset the DNS Client with a simple batch file (submitted by: Ronny Ong - 2K/XP only)

DnsManual.bat (resets the DNS Client to Manual) [right-click and select: Save Target As]
DnsDisabled.bat (resets the DNS Client to Disabled) [right-click and select: Save Target As]
To use: double-click on the downloaded file and reboot that's it ...
For all other Questions, Issues and Solutions
- see: The HOSTS File FAQ
For detailed Download and Extract Instructions - see: Download Help

Related Utilities

  • SpywareBlaster can encrypt and create a backups of your HOSTS file.
  • WinPatrol will allow you to lock your HOSTS file and will monitor changes.
  • ZoneAlarm Pro and Security Suite users have a "Lock Hosts" file option.
    However this requires special instructions to edit or update the HOSTS file.
HostsMan is a freeware application that lets you manage your Hosts file.
Includes an option to turn off the unneeded DNS Client Service.
This also has an option to update the existing HOSTS file when needed.
Important! - make sure you select: Default action - Overwrite
Use the Server option to replace the Action Cancelled message.

Windows Vista users ... once installed right-click on "hm.exe" and select: Properties
Click the Compatibility tab and select: "Run as Administrator" [screenshot]

Rename the HOSTS file on the fly ... a simple one click batch file. (Win9x/XP/Vista)
HostsXpert is a terrific multi-function Hosts File Manager [screenshot]
Note: no install required, it runs from anywhere... when updating the HOSTS file make sure to use the Replace option, rather than Merge
Homer is a LocalHost webserver used to replace the Action Cancelled message.
Download a custom image for use in Homer.
Simply save (Save Target As) blocked.gif (2 kb) to the
"\Homer\Homer\images\" folder.
The host file is located in different locations in different operating systems and even in different Windows versions: [1]
  • Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista:
    is the default location, which may be changed.
    The actual directory is determined by the Registry key \HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\
  • Windows 95/98/Me: %WinDir%\
  • Linux and other Unix-like operating systems: /etc
  • Mac OS 9 and earlier: System Folder: Preferences or System folder (format of the file may vary from Windows and Linux counterparts)
  • Mac OS X: /private/etc (uses BSD-style Hosts file)
Default content on Windows operating systems
In Windows, the default hosts file is often blank or it contains (inactive) comment lines followed by IPv4 or IPv6 localhost entries.       localhost
::1 localhost
An example can be found at:

Tuesday, July 22, 2008

Windows XP Hidden Apps

Portable Windows XP Hidden App Launcher - 1,3 MB

Windows XP Hidden Apps all in one.

1) Character Map = charmap.exe
2) Disk Cleanup = cleanmgr.exe
3) Clipboard Viewer = clipbrd.exe (view contents of Windows clipboard)
4) Dr Watson = drwtsn32.exe (Troubleshooting tool)
5) DirectX diagnosis = dxdiag.exe (Diagnose & test DirectX, video & sound cards)
6) Private character editor = eudcedit.exe (creation or modification of characters)
7) IExpress Wizard = iexpress.exe (Create self-extracting / self-installing package) Microsoft Synchronization Manager = mobsync.exe (allows synchronization of files on the network for working offline. UNDOCUMENTED).
9) Windows Media Player 5.1 = mplay32.exe (Retro version of Media Player, very basic).
10) ODBC Data Source Administrator = odbcad32.exe
11) Object Packager = packager.exe ( packaging objects for insertion in files, has comprehensive help files).
12) System Monitor = perfmon.exe ( Everything you ever wanted to know about any aspect of PC performance )
13) Program Manager = progman.exe (Legacy Windows 3.x desktop shell, I use this when I don't want other people messing with my machine...).
14) Remote Access phone book = rasphone.exe
15) Registry Editor = regedt32.exe [also regedit.exe] (for hacking the Windows Registry).
16) Network shared folder wizard = shrpubw.exe (creates shared folders on network).
17) File siganture verification tool = sigverif.exe
18) Volume Contro = sndvol32.exe (Just in case you've lost it from your tray).
19) System Configuration Editor = sysedit.exe (modify System.ini & Win.ini just like in Win98!).
20) Syskey = syskey.exe (Secures XP Account database - BE CAREFUL.. appears to encrypt all passwords...UNDOCUMENTED).
21) Microsoft Telnet Client = telnet.exe
22) Driver Verifier Manager = verifier.exe (utility for monitoring the actions of drivers? (useful if having driver problems? UNDOCUMENTED).
23) Windows for Workgroups Chat = winchat.exe (old NT utility to allow chat sessions over a LAN, some help files available).
24) "Microsoft System Configuration Utility" or simply "MSCONFIG." Designed to help you troubleshoot problems with your computer, MSCONFIG can also be used to ensure that your computer boots faster and crashes less.
Download: (Size: 1,3 MB)

Linux Commands

alias- Create an alias
break- Exit from a for, while, until or select loop
builtin- Run a shell builtin, passing it args, and return
cal- Display a calendar
case- Conditionally perform a commandcat Display the contents of a file
cat- Display the contents of a file (concatenate)
cd- Change Directory - change the current working directory to a specific Folder.
cfdisk- Curses based disk partition table manipulator for Linux
chgrp- Change group ownership
chmod- Change access permissions
chown- Change file owner and group
chroot- Run a command with a different root directory
cksum- Print CRC checksum and byte counts
cmp- Compare two files
comm- Compare two sorted files line by line
command- Run a command - ignoring shell functions
continue- Resume the next iteration of a loop
cp- Copy one or more files to another location
cron- Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab- Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit- Split a file into context-determined pieces
cut- Divide a file into several parts
date- Display or change the date & time
dc- Desk Calculator
dd- Dump Data - convert and copy a file (use for RAW storage)
declare- Declare variables and give them attributes
df- Display free disk space
diff- Display the differences between two files
diff3- Show differences among three files.
dir- Briefl list of directory contents
dircolors- Color setup for `ls', outputs a sequence of shell commands to set up the terminal for color output from `ls' (and `dir', etc.).
dirname- Convert a full pathname to just a path
dirs- Display the list of currently remembered directories.
du- Estimate file space usage, reports the amount of disk space used by the specified files and for each subdirectory.
echo- Display message on screen
egrep- Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
enable- Enable and disable builtin shell commands.
env- Display, set, or remove environment variables, Run a command in a modified environment.
eval- Evaluate several commands/arguments
exec- Execute a command
expand- Convert tabs to spaces
export- Set an environment variable
expr- Evaluate expressions
factor- Print prime factors
false- Do nothing, returning a non-zero (false) exit status
fdformat- Low level format a floppy disk
fdisk- Partition table manipulator for Linux
fgrep- Search input files for lines that match a given pattern
find- Search a folder hierarchy for filename(s) that meet a desired criteria
fmt- Reformat paragraph text
fold- Wrap text to fit a specified width
for- Expand words, and execute commands
fsck- Filesystem consistency check and repair.
function- Define Function Macros
getopts- Parse positional parameters
hash- Remember the full pathname of a name argument
hashcharacter- A comment or remark is indicated by starting the line with the # character
head- Output the first part of files, prints the first part (10 lines by default)
history- Command Line history
hostname- Print or set system name
id- Print real and effective user id (uid) and group id (gid)
if- Conditionally perform a command.
import- Capture some or all of an X server screen and save the image to file
install- copy files while setting their permission modes and, if possible, their owner and group
join- Join lines on a common field
kill- Stop a process from running
less- Display output one screen at a time, Search through output, Edit the command line.
let- Perform arithmetic on shell variables
ln- Make links between files
local- Create variables
locate- Find files
logname- Print current login name
logout- Exit a login shell
lpc- Line printer control program
lpr- off line print - sends a print job to the default system queue
lprm- Remove jobs from the line printer spooling queue
ls- List information about FILEs, by default the current directory.
m4- macro processor
man- Display helpful information about commands.
mbadblocks- Check and repair floppy disk problems
mkdir- Create new folder(s), if they do not already exist
mkfifo- Make FIFOs (named pipes) with the specified names.
mknod- creates a FIFO, character special file, or block special file
more- Display output one screen at a time
mount- Mount a file system
mtools- allow Unix systems to manipulate MS-DOS files
mv- Move or rename files or directories
nice- Run a command with modified scheduling priority
nl- Number lines and write files
nohup- Run a command immune to hangups, runs the given COMMAND with hangup
passwd- Modify a user password
paste- Merge lines of files
period- source or dot operator
popd- Remove the top entry from the directory stack
pr- Print files, printing and pagination filter for text files
printf- Format and print data
ps- Process status, information about processes running in memory
pushd- Save and then change the current directory. With no arguments
pwd- Print Working Directory
quota- Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck- Scan a file system for disk usage
quotactl- Set disk quotas
ram- ram disk device
rcp- Copy files between two machines
read- Read a line from standard input
readonly- Mark variables/functions as readonly
return- Cause a shell function to exit with the return value n
rm- Remove files (delete/unlink)
rmdir- Remove folder(s), if they are empty
rsync- Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
sdiff- Merge two files interactively
sed- Stream Editor
select- Accept keyboard input
seq- Print numeric sequences
set- Manipulate shell variables and functions
shift- Shift positional parameters
shopt- Shell Options
shutdown- Shutdown or restart linux
sleep- Delay for a specified time
sort- Sort text files
split- Split a file into fixed-size pieces
su- Substitute user identity
sum- Print a checksum for a file
symlink- Make a new name for a file
sync- Synchronize data on disk with memory
tac- Concatenate and write files in reverse
tail- Output the last part of files
tar- Tape Archiver
tee- Redirect output to multiple files
test- Evaluate a conditional expression
time- Measure Program Resource Use
times- Print out the user and system times used by the shell and its children
top- List processes running on the system
touch- Change file timestamps
tr- Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
traceroute- Trace Route to Host
true- Do nothing, successfully
tsort- Topological sort
tty- Print filename of terminal on stdin
type- Describe a command
ulimit- Limit user resources
umask- Users file creation mask
uname- Print system information
unexpand- Convert spaces to tabs
uniq- Uniquify files
units- Convert units from one scale to another
unset- Remove variable or function names
unshar- Unpack shell archive scripts
until- Execute commands (until error)
useradd- Create new user account
usermod- Modify user account
users- List users currently logged in
uuencode- Encode a binary file uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode
watch- Execute/display a program periodically
wc- Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis- Report all known instances of a command
which- Locate a program file in the user's path.
while- Execute commands
who- Print who is currently logged in
xargs- Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s).
yes- prints the command line arguments, separated by spaces and followed by a newline